Saturday, November 24, 2012

Magnetic Levitation Trains

One trend in transportation that may have a major affect on the future is the Maglev (magnetic levitation) train.  This technology uses magnetism to levitate and propel the train and trains can travel at 350mph or more (Halal, 2008).  The jury is still out on whether the technology will succeed.  China has installed maglev trains successfully and other countries are considering installing them. The technology costs about $50 to $75 million per mile which is expensive and so some countries are cancelling their plans and reverting back to traditional high speed rail. The energy required to operate both traditional rail and maglev are similar since most of the energy is used to overcome air resistance.
Magnetic Levitation Train
 The forces that are in play for Maglev trains are economics and convenience.   Economically even though they are more costly to build, they are far cheaper to maintain and operate.  This is because traditional rail uses wheels with bearings that wear out and tracks that experience wear and tear.  If government and private industry is able to look beyond short term expense and concentrate on long term costs, the maglev trains will succeed economically. Convenience is an important factor on whether a technology will succeed and, in this case, the maglev trains are faster than conventional trains.  When installed in places where speed is a factor such as between two towns or a town and an airport, maglev trains will be well received by the busy public.

 

References

 

Halal, W. E. (2008). Technology's Promise. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

9 comments:

  1. maglev for space elevator future

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    1. ...fly to the Moon only in a rocket. Do not is possible make a Station hanging Moon´s below that enters in Earth´s Atmosphere because then...due to rotation´s speed of Earth, approx. 1666 kms/h, this huge supersonic wind speed would do impossible embarking on Station.

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  4. ...space-elevator (a cable to the moon)... Train Moon space elevator is not possible, because if could climb (to orbital counterweight for sends away by pulley´s "clothesline" cable system installed previously from Moon◙══════◙Counterweight...) each perigee 1 section track with 100 mts in length, 13 perigees/year, and only could climb 10 sections/year = 1 km/year of Track, 380,000 kms would need 380,000 years! builds the total Track. Moon space elevator with cable, perhaps, orbital Station-counterweight located between 56,000 kms in perigee (36,000 kms for no collision with geostationary space-elevator of Earth + 20,000 kms possible difference of Moon´s perigee) and 106,000 kms in apogee (56,000 + 50,000 kms approx. difference Moon´s Apogee - Perigee) from Earth. 2 space-elevators, 1 in each cable pulley´s "clothesline", while one go up to Moon, the other go down to Earth. But...supposing a speed 100 kms/hour: 380,000 kms/100 = 3,800 hours, 5 months travelling...

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  5. ...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)...geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (two of them with a track for Train) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards the higher counterweight...if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = Wheel´s radius = 250 mts... Cable´s length of the rhombus side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts. Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide*50 mts height, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed = 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not changes the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not collision tendency of the Station-Wheel against the rhombus´s cables...but the system must supporting lateral charges against Track produced by the Coriolis effect when Train goes upwards or downwards...), the gyroscopic-rigidity contributes for maintaining forever the gyration-axis perpendicular to orbital trajectory... When the Maglev Train slowly arrives, using now their retractable cogwheels by the Zipper-Track (zippers installed on the same Maglev-Track), Train stops in Geo 0g-Station placed over one extreme of the gyration-axis... Passengers disembark and entering into gyratory circular corridor, they take now the interior-elevator of one of the Wheel´s hollow-radius, and tunnel "descending" till Hotel into the final Zone-1g...where while Station-Wheel goes turning, the immense O2 producer Hydroponics Garden receives a filtered Sun light...and there are Earth´s awesome views.

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  7. ☼↓↓▓0.08g▬▬▬←▬▬▬▬▬↓☺▬▬♦1g▬→▬▬1g...Space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... Faraway high beyond Earth surface at 150,000 kms...fast orbital speed 11.4 kms/sec...with only 0.08g centrifugal, 0.8 mts/sec² (a person thas has 80 kgs gravitational force ↓ on Earth equator radius=6378.1 kms; over there with a radius 156378.1 kms only has 6.64 kgs centrifugal force ↑)...could be the counterweight Terminal Orbital Station-Ramp... Awaits passengers in Earth-Station a hyperspeed vertical electric Train of Magnetic Levitation... "Spatial Train coming from Orbital Station-Ramp and Orbital Station-Wheel at these moments arriving will depart again after one hour, passengers with Moon destination please embark on SHIP-COACH when will be hooked at Train´s end"...medium-sped = 5,000 kms/hour: Earth/Orbital Station-Wheel, distance = 35,786 kms...total travel time = 7 hours... Orbital Station-Wheel/Orbital Station-Ramp, distance = 114,214 kms...total travel time = 23 hours... Well seized from retractable cogwheels, with slow-speed at the beginnig travel of strong gravitation from Earth, with conventional Zipper-Track... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... "Passengers please belts"...starting horizontal from Station, when train goes climbing is VERTICAL, looking upwards...vertical-train with special zig-zag corridor with protections and seats also in the center for avoiding passenger´s fall down in straight line till coach´s bottom... Already enough far, with little gravitational Earth attraction: MAGLEV on...Cogwheels off... Here we go...goooooo!...hyperspeed→... Already braking enough near from each Station...slow-speed, changes propulsion system again: COGWHEELS on...Maglev off... Entering in slow track on rhombus structure... 7 hours: half length above half length below through Station´s floor, Train is on rhombus inclined track at zero-speed, near from Water-Recycling Plant with carbon nanotube´s filters...and the other Air-Filtering Plant with catalysts...the passengers disembark in weightlessness: Geo 0g-Station...passing from static-platform to gyratory circular corridor, go taking soon an interior-elevator in one of the hollows-radius and "descending"...finally, the passengers have arrived at destination: Wheel centrifuge 1g-Station, with its gyration´s-axis perpendicular to orbital trajectory... A Wheel with 500 mts diameter, 1g-habitable length 1571 mts*50 mts wide*50 mts height...gyrating into 4 cables, two of them with a track for Train, a rhombus structure forming for wheel´s supporting...

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  8. (2)...space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... Tour continuing again ... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... once passed the slow track on rhombus structure, enters again on fast main Track... kms 50,630, braking: Moon-Launching-Point, Train is at zero-speed, rear SHIP-COACH is released staying alone, again... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... (((SHIP-COACH, while Earth turns, awaits patient the hour for releasing from Track and going to Moon with exact heading...now...takeoff and goes transferring orbits till Moon orbit where firing rocket again, brakes and lands on Moon☺Station... "Come to occult face with us and visiting the ancient Alien in ruins City"...and once recharged with fuel and passengers...equal than aircraft carrier, from a Launching-Catapult...SHIP-COACH TAKEOFF►... and returns conventionally to Earth)))... Already enough near from Terminal (magnetic shield anti-radiation and UV rays protection)...slowly by zipper-track train´s cogwheels are braking strongly "downhill"... 23 hours: Train is horizontal on Terminal at zero-speed, near from Ship´s Launching-Ramp towards Jupiter/interstellar Space, in spectacular and covered by transparent graphene´s domes with Earth views always in the ceiling, the passengers disembark at destination: counterweight centrifuge Ramp 0.08g-Station.

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