Saturday, November 24, 2012

Magnetic Levitation Trains

One trend in transportation that may have a major affect on the future is the Maglev (magnetic levitation) train.  This technology uses magnetism to levitate and propel the train and trains can travel at 350mph or more (Halal, 2008).  The jury is still out on whether the technology will succeed.  China has installed maglev trains successfully and other countries are considering installing them. The technology costs about $50 to $75 million per mile which is expensive and so some countries are cancelling their plans and reverting back to traditional high speed rail. The energy required to operate both traditional rail and maglev are similar since most of the energy is used to overcome air resistance.
Magnetic Levitation Train
 The forces that are in play for Maglev trains are economics and convenience.   Economically even though they are more costly to build, they are far cheaper to maintain and operate.  This is because traditional rail uses wheels with bearings that wear out and tracks that experience wear and tear.  If government and private industry is able to look beyond short term expense and concentrate on long term costs, the maglev trains will succeed economically. Convenience is an important factor on whether a technology will succeed and, in this case, the maglev trains are faster than conventional trains.  When installed in places where speed is a factor such as between two towns or a town and an airport, maglev trains will be well received by the busy public.




Halal, W. E. (2008). Technology's Promise. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.


  1. maglev for space elevator future

  2. (1) (railroad to the moon)... ☼ ← ☺▬▬▬←▬▬▬▬▬▬↔▬♦ ☻ → ☼ ...a hyper-speed vertical electric train of Magnetic Levitation with Moon receiving from nuclear electric generator on Moon...with only emrgency brake rockets...((from Earth, passengers in rocket to space-elevator of Moon located between 20,000 and 70,000 kms high...or...)) awaits passengers in the gyratory World´s around in 27.55 days Pendant♦Station, size as an aircraft carrier, located between 9 and that day 43,638 kms (by elliptic Moon orbit) from Earth surface, and by 1 track (1 train monorail, half length above half length below through Station´s floor, with thin sheet lead anti-radiations), carbon nanotubes track made in hinge joint sections, such as a bike chain drive (so, also the Station can modify its own height with 10 kms/hour speed, starting each perigee to preparing the height for the next, staying always in perigee (or at whole elliptic Moon orbit if prefer) at 9 kms height from Earth´s surface, going due to the continuous changes of Moon´s perigee, upwards for avoid Station crash against ground!!...or downwards, by the zipper track carrying the track´s excess (only there is 1 track: main V downwards, curved under Station, again H upward till robot), with Track-H extreme firmly hooked to vehicle robot placed at Track-V between 9 and 73,000 kms above Station, by its own service section Vertical track (Station down↓, robot down↓ putting track under Station...Station up↑, robot up↑ tugging from extreme of Track-H and so climbing track´s excess, no track hanging under Station: such as a bike transmission...a central vertical tunnel, here it is the powerful and slow Station´s cogwheels geared on zipper track, for main Track-V passes downwards through Station´s floor, free gears driving track below in each right angle and other relatively distant vertical tunnel for Track-H passes upwards again with gear above for in < 90º angle, Track-H going only till Robot´s Junction-Railroads on top right triangle: top/service section Vertical track...|...for displacement of track...\...for Train passing by Track-H from robot´s external surface (other exactly same system installed on Moon Station for has double security functioning in Pendant♦Station height from Earth)... Central tunnel-V goes till Station ceiling and there enough cables at tunnel upside fastened, as a upside down parachute, give stability to Station... The tunnel-H, with more wide upside for permit Track-H angular movement when changes robot´s height, and closed and pressurized when Train it is, goes till ceiling and is Station´s platform for embark/disembark)... Track with 347,883 kms in length (plus added kms), surface to surface, at the upper end attached to the Moon surface...

  3. (2a) (railroad to the moon)... Beginning...first, sending 2 carbon nanotubes ultra-thin cable bobbins to Moon Station, and once put on Station´s motorized pulley...spacecraft takeoff straight heading to Earth, unrolling the 2 cable bobbins till relatively near from Earth, the 2 thin cables are put on spacecraft´s free pulley closing circuit, spacecraft remains provisionally as counterweight...substituting thin cable for new grower and longer resistant carbon nanotubes cable (traction resistance: 2,000 Tm/cm²) sent from Moon by pulley´s system. Spacecraft is already very near from Earth...increases its mass a few Tm with a supplementary exterior net filled with a lot of salty water-tanks arrived from ocean, tensing↔cables... When piece´s monorail track arriving to counterweight from Earth...joining pieces...the track goes from spacecraft/counterweight◙═══════◙Moon, slowly step by step hooked to pulley´s cable, (as in a domestic clothesline with pulleys)... Finally. train´s track is already made, next step...

  4. (a cable to the moon)... Train Moon space elevator is not possible, because if could climb (to orbital counterweight for sends away by pulley´s "clothesline" cable system installed previously from Moon◙══════◙Counterweight...) each perigee 1 section track with 100 mts in length, 13 perigees/year, and only could climb 10 sections/year = 1 km/year of Track, 380,000 kms would need 380,000 years! builds the total Track. Moon space elevator with cable, perhaps, orbital Station-counterweight located between 56,000 kms in perigee (36,000 kms for no collision with geostationary space-elevator of Earth + 20,000 kms possible difference of Moon´s perigee) and 106,000 kms in apogee (56,000 + 50,000 kms approx. difference Moon´s Apogee - Perigee) from Earth. 2 space-elevators, 1 in each cable pulley´s "clothesline", while one go up to Moon, the other go down to Earth. But...supposing a speed 100 kms/hour: 380,000 kms/100 = 3,800 hours, 5 months travelling...